Root Stock Reference Guide

Apple / Malus Root Stock

M9-NIC 29 (RN-29)

P.P.10714 Zone 6-8 and ZONE 5 in protected areas.  This new M9 rootstock from Belgium was selected for its superior rooting and transplanting qualities along with its excellent growth rate similar in characteristics and size to M9-337.  It has slightly more vigor allowing early and heavy production.  As with all M9’s, it requires staking or a support system and is more resistant to crown rot than other apple rootstocks.  This rootstock is fast becoming one of the most popular clones asked for in the M9 family and is the most dwarfing apple rootstock we grow.

Malling 26 (M26)

ZONE 4-8 This rootstock is considered a dwarf, but is more vigorous than Malling 9 with a stronger root system.  Generally it is free standing (not requiring a stake), but with a heavy fruit set can lean in very windy areas.  M26’s resistence to disease varies from area to area but has faired quite well in western states.  Fireblight can be a problem in eastern states where it strikes apple trees.  M26 is considered shallow rooted and therefore subject to drought stress.  It has little tolerance of heavy, excessively acid, or unusually wet or dry soils.  Proper irrigation management is necessary for trees on this rootstock.  M26 is highly susceptible to wooly aphid, which is seldom a problem in orchards.  M26 is one of the hardiest of the malling series.

Malling 7 (M7)

ZONE 5-8  One of the most desirable rootstocks when factors such as production efficiency, longevity, ease of propagation, hardiness, compatibility and disease resistence are considered.  It is susceptible to collar rot, but much less so than MM106.  Support is recommended in the first 5 to 10 years if planted on a very windy site or in poor soil.  M7 is considered to be semi-dwarf, producing a tree that can be kept at a reasonable size with normal pruning.  It does well in most soils except heavy clay.  M7 tends to produce root suckers especially in shallow plantings.

Malling Merton 106 (MM106)

ZONE 6-8  This is a fairly vigorous rootstock with more vigor than M7, putting it into the semi-standard class.  MM106 crops early, requires no tree support and is wooly aphid resistant.  Its resistance to collar-rot varies from area to area.  MM106 resists collar-rot quite well in Washington State where copper trunk paints are applied, but appears to be quite susceptible to more virulent strains in parts of British Columbia.  M106 is susceptible to mildew and is relatively sensitive to cold, heat, and drought.  It is late to defoliate.  MM106 requires a well drained soil and good soil management.  This rootstock is an excellent choice for spur type trees and does not tend to sucker.

Malling Merton 111 (MM111)

ZONE 5-8  Like MM106, this rootstock is considered semi-standard making it an easy to maintain tree size.  It has early to prolific cropping like the MM106 and is more resistant to collar-rot.  Another main advantage with MM111 is that it is virtually non-suckering.  It is well anchored, requires no tree support and is drought tolerant.  MM111 is resistant to wolly apple aphids and adapts to most soil conditions.  It is excellent choice for spur type trees.


ZONE 2-8 Ht. 30-40’  Spread 20-30’ Upright spreading form.  Large 13/4” fragrant single white flowers.  Large egg shaped red-purple 11/4” fruit.  Fruit ripens in August-September.  Excellent for jelly.  Popular pollinizer for early to mid-season apple varieties.  Extremely hardy.  Good disease resistance.  Golden yellow bark.  Introduced by the S. Dakota experimental station.


ZONE 5-8 and ZONE 4 in protected areas.  Cold hardy to about -30 degrees F.  Lower temperatures will injure fruit buds along with wood and can kill the trees.  Domestica rootstocks can be grown in protected areas in Zone 4 and do well in Zone 5.  This rootstock has been requested by commercial apple producers to ensure more vigor with the less vigorous spur type Red Delicious strains.  Some of these strains are known to “runt out” on less vigorous Malling rootstocks.  Domestica rootstock is used extensively in budding ornamental crabapples and is known for its ease of budding, grafting and compatibility.


ZONE 3  A new and exciting Malus rootstock for flowering crabapples.  Sproutfree is a highly sucker resistant rootstock, allowing for significant time and labour savings.  It is a vigorous full size producing rootstock that contributes to a well anchored root system.

Prunus avium Mazzard Cherry

Mazzard Cherry

ZONE 4-8  mazzard rootstocks have proven to be reliable in all climate where cultivated cherries thrive.  It has a spreading root habit that tolerates heavier soils and is the preferred rootstock in soils too heavy for Mahaleb.  It is generally considered to be a standard size controlling understock that can be kept down in size by pruning at a young age.  Mazzard is superior to Mahaleb in regards to its ability to resist many common cherry diseases.  It is susceptible to Mahaleb to crown gall and bacterial canker, but is resistant to root knot nematodes.  It is moderately resistant to oak root fungus and somewhat resistant to phytophthora.  This rootstock has few root suckers.

Prunus insititia St Julian Plum

St. Julian Plum

ZONE 4-8 Ht. 15-25’ Prunus insititia is an outstanding rootstock selection for apricots, nectarines, peaches, plums and prunes.  It solves many of the problems associated with using Lovell peach (Prunus persica), Western Sand Cherry (Prunus besseyi) and Nanking Cherry (Prunus tomentosa).  Lovell Peach has problems on poorly drained soil, while the latter two varieties have compatibility and poor root to tree connection problems along with productivity and anchoring problems.  St. Julian has long been used in Northern Europe on heavy, wet clay soils and has good compatibility with all of our varieties.  It is long lived and tolerates wet feet as well as drought conditions.  This rootstock produces a tree that grows to be 80 to 85% the size of a standard tree (considered semi-dwarf), but can be held at 7 to 10 feet when properly pruned.  St. Julian is related to the Damson plum of Northern Europe.  It produces a well anchored tree that requires no support.  Hardwood cuttings.

Pyrus Flowering Pear

Communis ZONE 4-8 Ht. 30-40’  The species all common pears are derived from is often called Common or European pear.  It is susceptible to fireblight in certain locations.  This rootstock has a strong vertical branching habit and is very long lived.  Communis takes damp, heavy soils better than some varieties and is resistant to oak root fungus.  This rootstock is cold hardy, excellent for espaliers and tolerant of pear decline.

*Old Home Farmingdale 87 (OHxF) Somewhat semi-dwarf

Ordering Root Stock / Root Stock Sales

Art's Nursery makes root stock available through our growers and suppliers to home gardeners and propagators. Root stock sales are by special order only and are only available at specified times per year. For more information, contact Sandra or Rebecca at 604.882.1201 or


root stock, root stock sales, root stock sale canada, buy rootstock

Author: Rebecca Source: Arts Nursery Ltd.


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